Spring is officially here. That means longer days, vacation planning, planting gardens, hiking … and diseases caused by ticks.
You probably know someone who’s had Lyme disease, a bacterial infection that starts with a tick bite. But every year, Virginia residents are diagnosed with two other tick-borne illnesses: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis.
“I would definitely say cases of Lyme disease are surging here. And I’ve never used that verb before when it comes to increasing incidence of anything,” says James Nataro, MD, PhD, a pediatric infectious disease expert and head of UVA’s Department of Pediatrics.
In 2010, 1,245 cases of Lyme disease were reported to the Virginia Department of Health (VDH); in 2001, just 156 cases were reported.
The increase may be due to the bacterium that causes Lyme disease becoming more common in wild mammals and ticks, Nataro explains. And when those wild mammals, like deer, live near humans, the disease spreads easily.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis are not as common as Lyme disease, but UVA sees a few cases each year, Nataro says.
Could That “Flu” Be a Tick-Borne Illness?
Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever can have symptoms similar to flu, according to the VDH. Those include:
- Muscle aches
“Patients with Lyme do not appear as acutely ill as those with the other two infections,” Nataro says.
Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever have characteristic rashes. Lyme’s is a red, irregular circular rash around the tick bite. The Rocky Mountain spotted fever rash begins on the wrists and hands and spreads to the torso over hours to days, Nataro says.
And anyone infected with Rocky Mountain spotted fever or ehrlichiosis is more likely to have a fever and severe headache, he adds.
If you have these symptoms, see a doctor. Deaths from Lyme disease are very rare, but the other two diseases, particularly Rocky Mountain spotted fever, can be life-threatening if not treated, Dr. Nataro says.
All three diseases can be treated with antibiotics. In fact, says Nataro, Lyme disease complications can be treated or avoided by taking antibiotics for less than a month. “Prolonged antibiotics are never necessary,” he says.
Avoiding Tick-Borne Illnesses
Different ticks spread these three diseases. In Virginia:
- Blacklegged ticks, also called deer ticks, spread Lyme disease and ehrlichiosis.
- Lone star ticks and dog ticks spread ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Don’t assume you only need to check your body for ticks after a summertime hike. Ticks can live:
- In wooded areas
- In tall grass
- On your pets, if they’re going outside
And they can turn up even during unseasonably warm days in the winter. Nataro diagnosed a case of Lyme disease in December.
If you’re spending time outside, use insect repellent with DEET and wear a hat. Wearing a long-sleeve shirt and long pants if it’s not too hot will also help keep ticks off you. Put your clothes in the dryer for 20 minutes afterwards to kill any ticks on them.
If you do spot a tick on you or your child, grasp its head with tweezers and pull firmly. And if you have trouble getting it off, see a doctor.
Learn More About Ticks
Want to see pictures of disease-causing ticks in Virginia and other parts of the U.S.? Check out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.